Technology that depends on satellite-navigation signals is increasingly threatened by attack from widely available equipment, experts say.
While “jamming” sat-nav equipment with noise signals is on the rise, more sophisticated methods allow hackers even to program what receivers display.
At risk are not only sat-nav users, but also critical national infrastructure.
A UK meeting outlining the risks was held at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington on Tuesday.
The meeting was organised by the government-funded Digital Systems Knowledge Transfer Network.
“GPS gives us transportation, distribution industry, ‘just-in-time’ manufacturing, emergency services operations – even mining, road building and farming, all these and a zillion more,” David Last, a consultant engineer and former president of the Royal Institute of Navigation, told the conference.
“But what few people outside this community recognise is the high-precision timing that GPS provides to keep our telephone networks, the internet, banking transactions and even our power grid online.”
Professor Last recalled the New Year’s Day failure of a single satellite in 2004 and how it wreaked havoc with sat-nav readings.
“Satellite failures, though dramatic, are not the main problem,” he said.
“The Achilles heel of GPS is the extremely weak signals that reach the receiver.”
Each satellite in a sat-nav constellation is putting out less power than a car headlight, illuminating more than a third of the Earth’s surface at a distance of more than 20,000 km.
What that means, and what has brought this group of policy-makers, academics and industry figures together, is that the signals can be easily swamped by equipment back on Earth.
This can be done unintentionally by, for example, pirate television stations, or with a purpose in mind.
Military systems have been doing this “jamming” – flooding an area with a signal at the GPS frequency – for years in a bid to frustrate enemy navigation systems.
But small jamming devices are increasingly available on the internet.
Low-power, hand-held versions that cost less than £100 can run for hours on a battery and confuse sat-nav receivers tens of kilometres away.
Higher-power versions can do far worse, and at both GPS and mobile phone frequencies.
What is more, receivers can be “spoofed” – not simply blinded by a strong, noisy signal, but fooled into thinking their location or the time is different because of fraudulent broadcast GPS signals.
“You can now buy a low-cost simulator and link it to Google Earth, put on a route and it will simulate that route to the timing that you specify,” said Professor Last.
“A GPS receiver overcome by it will behave as if you’re travelling along that route.”
The approach still costs in the thousands and is the preserve of what Professor Last calls the “real techies”, but he guessed that the tools could be in the hands of criminals within a year or two. …