Your mother always told you not to use your teeth as tools to open something hard, and she was right. Human skulls have small faces and teeth and are not well-equipped to bite down forcefully on hard objects. Not so of our earliest ancestors, say scientists.
New research published in the February 2009 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reveals nut-cracking abilities in our 2.5-million-year-old relatives that enabled them to alter their diet to adapt to changes in food sources in their environment.
Mark Spencer, an Arizona State University assistant professor, and doctoral student Caitlin Schrein in ASU’s School of Human Evolution and Social Change, are part of the international team of researchers who devised the study featured in the article “The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanus.” Using state-of-the-art computer modeling and simulation technology – the same kind engineers use to simulate how a car reacts to forces in a front-end collision – evolutionary scientists built a virtual model of the A. africanus skull and were able to see just how the jaw operated and what forces it could produce.
… hard nuts and seeds – were important survival strategies during a period of changing climates and food scarcity,” he added. “Our research shows that early, pre-stone tool human ancestors solved problems with their jaws that modern humans would have solved with tools.”