“Betty’s toolmaking abilities came to light by accident during an experiment in which she and Abel had to choose between a hooked and a straight wire for retrieving small pieces of pig heart, their favorite food. When Abel made off with the hooked wire, Betty bent the straight wire into a hook and used the tool to lift a small bucket of food from a vertical pipe. This experiment was the first time the crows had been presented with wire.
In their Science article, the researchers point out that Betty’s accomplishment?purposefully modifying objects into tools without prior experience?is almost unknown in the animal world. The article cites an experiment in which chimpanzees failed to straighten a length of piping, and pass it through a hole to retrieve an apple, until they were coached.” – natgeo
— “Savage also discusses Swiss zoologist Thomas Bugnyar’s research showing how a raven named Hugin learned to deceive a more dominant raven named Mugin into looking for cheese morsels in empty containers while Hugin snuck away to raid full containers. “This shady behavior satisfies the definition of ‘tactical’, or intentional, deception and admits the raven to an exclusive club of sociable liars that in the past has included only humans and our close primate relatives,” – natgeo